Scientific Research

Trump EPA begins push to overturn Obama-era climate regulation

nature.com

Trump EPA begins push to overturn Obama-era climate regulation


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Colliding stars spark rush to solve cosmic mysteries

nature.com

Colliding stars spark rush to solve cosmic mysteries


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FDA advisers back gene therapy for rare form of blindness

nature.com

FDA advisers back gene therapy for rare form of blindness


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Eye in the sky offers clearest vision of Earth

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Eye in the sky offers clearest vision of Earth


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Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory breaks ground on new building

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Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory breaks ground on new building


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Another El Nino problem: More carbon dioxide in air

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Another El Nino problem: More carbon dioxide in air


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Popular Stories

Pew Research Center Study Examines Current Challenges With Misinformation And The Truth Online
Times have definitely changed from the old traditional media to today´s new, and diverse digital media ecosystem. Because of the digitalization of news media, misinformation and false reports have become widespread. In the latest study published by the Pew Research Center and the Elon University´s Imagining the Internet Center explored the oncoming challenges to the to the future of truth and misinformation online   Read More ...
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Dolphin diets show how climate change could alter food chains off the California coast
Scientists studying dolphins dining off the California coastline have found that the marine food web is starting to look a little threadbare. The length of food chains in that web appears to have gotten shorter in response to environmental changes — such as those caused by El Niño events. The findings, published this week in the journal Science Advances, highlight a useful method for examining the ways climate change is affecting the structure of the world’s ecosystems   Read More ...
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Bear Necessities: Help students make major impact for WSU grizzly bear research center
PULLMAN, Wash. - You've heard about the Washington State Cougars, but what about their grizzly bears? WSU's Bear Research, Education, and Conservation Center is the only grizzly bear research center of its kind in the United States. Because few zoos have the resources or sufficient number of bears to obtain meaningful data on the species, the center was established. Right now students are banding together to make life better for the bears and they're asking for your help   Read More ...
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Pew Research Center Study Sheds Light On The President’s Twitter Usage
President Donald Trump has been occupied by the Oval Office and his daily usage of social network Twitter. A recently by the Pew Research Center revealed that stories from many news outlets were about Trump’s published. The first year in office can be characterized as contentious and at times polarizing. When the media covers the Trump Administration, the stories will have a narrative that is unfavorable   Read More ...
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Neurobiology: Domains to the rescue for Rett syndrome
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Flexible working: Science in the gig economy
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Science must examine the future of work
The tale encapsulates many of the issues that surround the intensifying debate about the roles of computers and humans in the workplace of the future — both the very near and the very far. Much of that debate places people and algorithms in direct competition. From lorry drivers threatened by self-driving vehicles to doctors who could be replaced by know-it-all diagnostic devices, many jobs as we know them could be done by artificial intelligence (AI) systems   Read More ...
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Cryo-electron microscopy structure of the lysosomal calcium-permeable channel TRPML3
The modulation of ion channel activity by lipids is increasingly recognized as a fundamental component of cellular signalling. The transient receptor potential mucolipin (TRPML) channel family belongs to the TRP superfamily and is composed of three members: TRPML1–TRPML3. TRPMLs are the major Ca2+-permeable channels on late endosomes and lysosomes (LEL). They regulate the release of Ca2+ from organelles, which is important for various physiological processes, including organelle trafficking and fusion   Read More ...
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Machine learning: Calculating disease
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Trump EPA begins push to overturn Obama-era climate regulation
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving to repeal former president Barack Obama's landmark regulations to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from power plants. The plan, introduced on 10 October, is a step towards fulfilling President Donald Trump's promises to reverse Obama-era climate regulations and end the “war on coal”. But any attempt to repeal the power-plant rule is certain to face lawsuits from environmental groups and many states that support Obama's climate policies   Read More ...
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Colliding stars spark rush to solve cosmic mysteries
Cosmic furnace A simulation of the merger of two neutron stars, leading to the formation of a black hole. About 2% of the stars' mass gets ejected at high speed, producing radioactive, heavy atoms. Credit: W. Kastaun/T. Kawamura/B. Giacomazzo/R. Ciolfi/A. Endrizzi via Caltech. Gold, platinum, uranium and many of the rare-earth elements that are crucial to today’s high-tech gadgets are generated during the formation of black holes, astronomers have said   Read More ...
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Solving a Higgs optimization problem with quantum annealing for machine learning
The discovery of Higgs-boson decays in a background of standard-model processes was assisted by machine learning methods. The classifiers used to separate signals such as these from background are trained using highly unerring but not completely perfect simulations of the physical processes involved, often resulting in incorrect labelling of background processes or signals (label noise) and systematic errors. Here we use quantum and classical annealing (probabilistic techniques for approximating the global maximum or minimum of a given function) to solve a Higgs-signal-versus-background machine learning optimization problem, mapped to a problem of finding the ground state of a corresponding Ising spin model   Read More ...
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Ion sieving in graphene oxide membranes via cationic control of interlayer spacing
Graphene oxide membranes—partially oxidized, stacked sheets of graphene—can provide ultrathin, high-flux and energy-efficient membranes for precise ionic and molecular sieving in aqueous solution. These materials have shown potential in a variety of applications, including water desalination and purification, gas and ion separation, biosensors, proton conductors, lithium-based batteries and super-capacitors. Unlike the pores of carbon nanotube membranes, which have fixed sizes, the pores of graphene oxide membranes—that is, the interlayer spacing between graphene oxide sheets (a sheet is a single flake inside the membrane)—are of variable size   Read More ...
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BRCA1–BARD1 promotes RAD51-mediated homologous DNA pairing
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Cytoplasmic chromatin triggers inflammation in senescence and cancer
Chromatin is traditionally viewed as a nuclear entity that regulates gene expression and silencing. However, we recently discovered the presence of cytoplasmic chromatin fragments that pinch off from intact nuclei of primary cells during senescence, a form of terminal cell-cycle arrest associated with pro-inflammatory responses. The functional significance of chromatin in the cytoplasm is unclear. Here we show that cytoplasmic chromatin activates the innate immunity cytosolic DNA-sensing cGAS–STING (cyclic GMP–AMP synthase linked to stimulator of interferon genes) pathway, leading both to short-term inflammation to restrain activated oncogenes and to chronic inflammation that associates with tissue destruction and cancer   Read More ...
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Japanese research leaders warn about national science decline
As Japan heads towards a national election on 22 October, scientific leaders worry that the outcome will do little to address long-standing concerns about the country’s deteriorating research landscape. They say that a decline in funding and a shift away from basic research has undermined Japan’s capacity to compete against both established scientific powerhouses and emerging ones such as China. Since 25 September, when Prime Minister Shinzo Abe called for a snap election, science has barely featured in the campaign   Read More ...
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Federal funding: Stifled by budgets, not irrelevance
Daniel Sarewitz constructs a stereotype of scientists who are left to their own devices and whose research is disconnected from potential applications (). As president of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), I argue that this misrepresents both US researchers and their funders. Most federal funding for basic research comes from mission-oriented agencies such as the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense (see )   Read More ...
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Perspective: Don't keep it in the family
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Trade talk: Habitat helper
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Non-Familial ALS: A tangled web
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Biochemistry: Complex assistance for DNA invasion
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Epic star collision, asteroid fly-by and journal resignations
Events | People | Research | Facilities | Policy | Awards | Funding | Trend watch. Flames devastate northern California Wildfires have scorched about 890 square kilometres in Northern California, leaving at least 41 people dead as of 17 October, making them the deadliest fires in the state’s history. Nearly 100,000 residents of Napa and Sonoma Counties had been evacuated from their homes, although this week officials have started to let people return   Read More ...
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PhD students: side jobs are no solution
As a graduate student at a US university, I object strongly to any implication that PhD students should take other jobs on top of their already demanding research (). That is not, nor should it be, a viable solution to academia's funding problems. I am pleased that this option seemed to work for the scientists you feature. Yet the real issue is that graduate students and junior researchers are often not paid a living wage, even though they routinely work in excess of 40 hours per week   Read More ...
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A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment
Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton,   Read More ...
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The future of work
Robots did not write this sentence, or any other part of . But that could change. Dramatic shifts in labour are reshaping society, the environment and the political landscape. Consider this disorienting estimate from the World Economic Forum: 65% of children entering primary schools now will grow up to work in jobs that do not yet exist. This week, asks: what light is research shedding on the future of work, and how will the changes affect scientists' working world? A News Feature explores which jobs are most at risk of being replaced by artificial intelligence and machine learning; whether a decentralized 'gig economy' will democratize work; and what programmes will best prepare workers   Read More ...
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Genetics: The hexanucleotide hex
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Fundraising: The Ice Bucket Challenge delivers
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Drug therapy: On the treatment trail for ALS
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Research round-up
Highlights from clinical trials on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Respiratory medicine: Diaphragm pacing meets early end Electrical stimulation of the diaphragm does not delay the need for ventilation support in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), nor does it prolong survival. The phrenic nerves, which stimulate the diaphragm muscle, undergo progressive degeneration in ALS. Muscle weakness ensues, and the patients eventually lose the ability to breathe independently   Read More ...
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PhD students: living wage key to diversity
In our view, your report on side jobs for scientists paints a naive and insensitive picture of the financial and social realities facing many graduate students and other early-career researchers (). For a group already burdened with enormous undergraduate debt, we find it irresponsible to imply that success in graduate school could hinge on having two jobs. In reality, academia is not populated solely by young graduate students who are supported by wealthy families   Read More ...
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Archaeology: The wonder of the pyramids
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The second Renaissance
The Renaissance that began in Europe in the mid-1400s and ended in the early 1500s brought a radical transformation of the sciences, the humanities and politics. Building on the invention of the printing press and cheap paper, information was democratized, there was a hunger for literacy and the Catholic Church's near-monopoly on knowledge was challenged. The resulting breakthroughs took Europe from being one of the more backward regions of the world to being the most advanced by far, within just 80 years   Read More ...
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The shape of work to come
Last year, entrepreneur Sebastian Thrun set out to augment his sales force with artificial intelligence. Thrun is the founder and president of Udacity, an education company that provides online courses and employs an armada of salespeople who answer questions from potential students through online chats. Thrun, who also runs a computer-science lab at Stanford University in California, worked with one of his students to collect the transcripts of these chats, noting which resulted in students signing up for a course   Read More ...
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Human TRPML1 channel structures in open and closed conformations
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Radically truncated MeCP2 rescues Rett syndrome-like neurological defects
Heterozygous mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene cause the neurological disorder Rett syndrome. The methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) protein is an epigenetic reader whose binding to chromatin primarily depends on 5-methylcytosine. Functionally, MeCP2 has been implicated in several cellular processes on the basis of its reported interaction with more than 40 binding partners, including transcriptional co-repressors (for example, the NCoR/SMRT complex), transcriptional activators, RNA, chromatin remodellers, microRNA-processing proteins and splicing factors   Read More ...
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New definitions of scientific units are on the horizon
Natl. Phys. Lab., UK. Revamped definitions of scientific units are on their way. In the biggest overhaul of the international system of units (SI) since its inception in 1960, a committee is set to redefine four basic units — the ampere, the kilogram, the kelvin and the mole — using relationships to fundamental constants, rather than abstract or arbitrary definitions. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures is reviewing the plans at a meeting near Paris from 16 to 20 October   Read More ...
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Organic long persistent luminescence
Long persistent luminescence (LPL) materials—widely commercialized as ‘glow-in-the-dark’ paints—store excitation energy in excited states that slowly release this energy as light. At present, most LPL materials are based on an inorganic system of strontium aluminium oxide (SrAl2O4) doped with europium and dysprosium, and exhibit emission for more than ten hours. However, this system requires rare elements and temperatures higher than 1,000 degrees Celsius during fabrication, and light scattering by SrAl2O4 powders limits the transparency of LPL paints   Read More ...
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History: Five millennia of Indian science
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FDA advisers back gene therapy for rare form of blindness
P. Motta/Dept. of Anatomy/University “La Sapienza”, Rome/SPL. Advisers to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have paved the way for the agency’s first approval of a gene therapy to treat a disease caused by a genetic mutation. On 12 October, a panel of external experts unanimously voted that the benefits of the therapy, which treats a form of hereditary blindness, outweigh its risks   Read More ...
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Mastering the game of Go without human knowledge
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